The FAA is taking too long to draft its rules for unmanned aircraft systems, and should go ahead and allow some limited UAS operations, the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International said this week. In areas such as around powerlines or pipelines and above rural farms, UAS operations could commence with little risk to manned aircraft or people on the ground, AUVSI said. "Each day that integration is delayed will lead to $27 million in lost economic impact," said AUVSI president Michael Toscano. The FAA has been working on the rules since 2009, and the latest target date of this November is almost four years behind schedule. Also this week, a federally operated $12 million drone was lost when it ditched in the Pacific.
The unarmed Predator B drone, operated by U.S. Customs & Border Protection, was being used by the crew of a Navy ship to test radar tracking gear near the south coast of California. The aircraft had a mechanical failure, according to CNN. The crew put the aircraft down in the ocean after determining that it couldn't make it back to the base in Arizona. So far, the cause of the failure is unknown, and the other nine drones operated by CPB have been grounded. The NTSB is investigating.
The military is already flying autonomous aircraft, and the private sector is eager to exploit this new technology. Michael Toscano, president of the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, explains to AVweb's Mary Grady why he thinks the FAA should reassess the risks and stop slowing down progress.
Question of the Week
Each week, we poll the savviest aviators on the World Wide Web (that's you) on a topic of interest to the flying community.
California Power Systems Announces Their 2014 Rotax Class Schedule California Power Systems will be offering Rotax classes this upcoming spring between February 28 and March 9, 2014. The classes offered include a Two-Stroke Service Course, 912/914 Service Class, Two-Stroke and 912/914 Renewal Course, 912/914 Maintenance Class, and a 912/914 Heavy Maintenance Class. For more details, class dates, and registration information on each of these Rotax classes, please call us at 1 (800) AIR-WOLF (247-9653) or visit the CPS web site.
Aviation insurance broker NationAir Aviation Insurance released its annual analysis of the aviation insurance market. It said it believes 2013 marked another year of relatively soft market (low) rates in all sectors of general aviation and that attention to expenses by insurers mean rates should remain stable going forward. While the market conditions have remained the same for several years, the reasons for that soft market are changing. At first, increased market competition pushed rates down. Now, however, rates are being held down by the more long-term forces of structural overcapacity, and thankfully, favorable loss history. While conventional thinking was that falling rates would eventually push aviation insurers into the red, causing a push for rate increase, insurers have instead been able to stay profitable even at lower rate levels. Lower interest rates, which require insurers to focus more on underwriting profits, were also thought to be a future justification for eventual rate increases.
Company President Jeff Bauer, who issued the report, pointed out that “over the last two years, we have seen many insurers attempting to make a profit on a smaller piece of the pie, and for the most part they have succeeded. While expense control spurred some of that success, insurers have stayed in the black primarily due to the absence of significant general aviation fatality accidents. As long as this continues, we do not anticipate any real pressure for rate increases.” The report went on to say that the world’s reinsurers, which are quite profitable, are not exerting any significant pressure on insurers through the premiums they charge for reinsurance. And many insurers are buying less reinsurance anyway. There now seems to be an equilibrium: All parties are rather satisfied with their share of the insurance pie; there is little incentive to start a rate war to increase market share.
Continental Motors' Cylinders
Our cylinders begin with raw forging and casting components with the highest standards in material properties. Each is then machined, honed, and assembled into a complete cylinder package that we firmly stand behind. Our employees take pride in building a quality product every step of the way.
It's not the same Eastern Air Lines of old, but a new company that acquired the brand in 2009 has moved into office space at Miami International Airport. The new Eastern also said this week it has filed an application with the U.S. Transportation Department to start operations, and will soon start working on Part 121 certification with the FAA. "We are honored to have the opportunity to launch an airline bearing the iconic Eastern Air Lines name," said CEO Edward Wegel. "We have recruited a world-class board of directors and a highly experienced management team to guide and lead this effort." The company is working to assemble a fleet of leased Airbus A319 and A320 aircraft, and is expected to start offering charter services for tour operators by the end of this year.
The new company moved into the same building that was home to the former Eastern Operations Center from 1965 to 1991. "The Eastern Airlines name was synonymous with MIA and the Miami community for more than 70 years," Miami-Dade Aviation Director Emilio González said in a statement. "So it's certainly exciting to see that this local icon is making a comeback." The original Eastern Air Lines operated from 1928 to 1991 as one of the largest U.S. domestic air carriers. Representatives of the new company visited China last year, where they showed interest in the C919 airliner manufactured by the Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China.
Lee Aerospace has been reacquired by its founder, Jim Lee, after 14 years as part of the Triumph Group Inc. The Wichita, Kan.-based aircraft window, sheet metal and composite structure operation will again be known as Lee Aerospace Inc. Jim Lee projects a “solid” 2014 and announced the shipment of the first of its large aircraft assemblies, a fuselage section, to Viking Air Limited for the Viking Twin Otter 400. Lee said, “This is an exciting time for us. We anticipate significant growth in employment and strong sales performance as we add new products and begin deliveries of large aircraft assemblies. We are extremely pleased to have been chosen by Viking to supply it with fuselage sections for the Viking 400.”
Founded in 1989, Lee Aerospace occupies facilities totaling more than 146,000 square feet. During its 14 years as a Triumph Group company, it increased employment by more than 300 percent and revenue by 350 percent. It supplies components to OEMs both in Wichita (Learjet, Beechcraft, Cessna and Spirit AeroSystems) and across the country (Honda, Cirrus and Gulfstream). With more than 800 built, Twin Otters can be found throughout the world—anywhere ruggedness, reliability and STOL operations are required. It can be fitted with wheels, skis or floats. In 2001, it was deemed the only aircraft capable of performing a South Pole evacuation flight of a critical patient in -60 degree C conditions.
Everyone's Talking About the IFD440 & IFD540!
Join us every Thursday at 5:00pm EDT to learn more about Avidyne's IFD440 & IFD540 GPS/NAV/COMs, the plug-and-play replacements for G430/530-Series navigators! Learn how such features as Hybrid Touch, GeoFill, and Procedure Preview can make your flying easier, safer, and more enjoyable.
Nothing against Cessna, but even some of the nicely restored older ones still show their age—that straight tail is a dead give away. But not so V-35 Bonanzas, whose timeless lines make them look as modern and anything flying, especially the P-35s built during the 1960s.
This month’s refurb of the month comes from Jeffery G. Scherer and here’s his report: “This is my 1963 Beechcraft P-35 Bonanza, Serial D-7088, manufactured in December 1962; nearly 51 years old. I bought it in December of 1990 and plan to keep it till I can't fly anymore. We(my twin brother flies with me since he retired as an Air Force C-5 pilot in 2001) have upgraded many times, the most recent depicted in the photos.
Total time is 4410 hours, with a factory new IO-470N in 2005. We added new paint and interior in 1994 and the airplane still looks new. A major avionics upgrade in 2010 included a Garmin G500 with synthetic vision, dual GNS430Ws, a Garmin transponder and audio panel. We’ve got the BendixKing active traffic system displayed on the G500. We love this, but it cost $30,000.
We use an iPad mini for charts (Jepp) and the G500 has Jepp chart view. We carry a spare iPad with Foreflight for back up NOS approach charts and Jepp VFR charts. We always file IFR and fly for business and pleasure in Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan and Minnesota, primarily. We fly 70 to 100 hours per year.”
If you’d like to see your airplane in AVweb’s refurb of the month, send us some photos and a brief description of what you’ve done to your airplane and we’ll try to find a spot for it.
Our weekly review of press releases uncovered news that King Schools has cut the price of its ATP ground school course by 50%. It is to help pilots who wish to obtain their ATP rating before the August 1, 2014 deadline when the new, more difficult and extremely expensive requirements go into effect. Martha King remarked, "If you qualify for an ATP certificate, you will want to obtain it before that deadline because waiting just one day longer will require you to do very expensive and time consuming full-motion, large-jet simulator and classrom training." Also in the news, the 18th annual Pilatus Owners and Pilots Association (POPA) Convention will be held June 12th – 15th, 2014 in Savannah, Ga. Aircraft will fly into Savannah-Hilton Head International Airport (KSAV). Owners, pilots, Pilatus representatives from Switzerland and Denver, Pilatus service centers and vendors will gather to discuss PC-12 operations.
For operators of King Air 200- and 300-series airplanes, Pro Star Aviation announced that it has received an STC for installation of a Cobham SwiftBroadband Satellite Communication system. It provides inflight capability for email, Internet access, smartphone connectivity and cabin LAN network for laptops, tablets and smartphones via WiFi and Ethernet connections. Finally, Sporty’s announced its new MySolo video service to assist the increasing number of pilots who are using compact video cameras to record memorable flights and then wondering how to edit and share the result. For $59.95, the MySolo service will turn the raw video into an up to five-minute, professionally edited product and share it on Sporty’s MySolo YouTube channel.
Time for the Ultimate Flight Bag?
"... the praise continues for the Flight Bag PLC Pro ... . The best flight bag I've ever used" -- Robert Goyer, Flying magazine. Modern, lightweight, and checkpoint-friendly, the Flight Bag PLC Pro is the ultimate flight bag. As a shoulder bag or backpack, it provides iPad/computer protection and is designed to easily store and find all of your gear. For more information, click here.
It's the dead of winter, so it's time to fight cabin fever by getting out of the house and getting yourself to a fly in whether it involves aircraft on wheels or skis—and both are happening this weekend according to SocialFlight's tracking of the latest events. Up on the northern tip of the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin the Ski Fly In on Fish Creek Harbor is happening Friday through Sunday. There will be food, fuel available via jugs for skiplanes and free transportation to and from Ephraim-Fish Creek airport (3D2) for those arriving in non-ski-equipped aircraft. For the ski crowd, check out Northwoods Aviation in Cadillac, Mich., which rents airplanes on skis. We spotted another skiplane fly in, this one in Huron, Ohio. EAA Chapter 50 is holding its Mid-Winter Chili Skiplane Fly In on Hinde Airport on Saturday, Feb. 1 from 1:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. They say they'll be serving chili, burgers, dogs and beverages no matter what the weather, so you may want to plan on a snow machine as plan B. Weather may be getting down most of the country, but not EAA Chapter 1055. They're holding a Fly In Breakfast on Saturday at York, Neb., Municipal Airport from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m.
They don't call them Maine-iacs for nothing: The Bald Mountain Camps Winter Fly In occurs on Saturday from 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. on a plowed, 3000-foot runway (wheeled aircraft welcome) on Mooselookmeguntic Lake, in front of Bald Mountain Camps Resort near 8B0, Bean Airport, Rangeley, Maine. Food and lodging will be available. Further south, Georgia is digging out with a Saturday Fly In Breakfast and Aviation Program at KLZU, Gwinnet County Briscoe Field, Lawrenceville, Ga. It begins at 8:00 a.m., with the program beginning at 10:30 a.m. A little further west, winter isn't stopping the monthly Pancake Breakfast at Pineville Municipal Airport, La. It's happening on Saturday from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Check SocialFlight.com for fly ins in your area.
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As the snow piles up around the windows at the virtual airport and some of the resident airplanes grow funny appendages on their landing gear, I always ponder the fact that many pilots will spend a pile of money to put their feet into skis but few ever explore flying airplanes with skis attached. That's sad, as skiplane flying is one of those niches of flying, such as splashing around in seaplanes, that is a tremendous amount of fun but is only experienced by a few pilots. Plus, you don't need a new rating to fly on skis; you're still in a land airplane. As most pilots know, some of the most enjoyable vistas they have had in flight have been during the winter. Having skis on the airplane now allows you to more fully explore some of those remote spots you've looked at from afar for so many years.
A number of pilots here in the Lounge regularly fly on skis during the winter and, in fact, we have an annual get together in January where some of the regulars at the virtual airport converge on Cadillac, Mich. There we rent a J-3 and Super Cub and take dual from Derek DeRuiter at Northwoods Aviation. Because of events such as this over the years, I've had a chance to listen to and fly with the pilots who seem to know their way around airplanes on skis and I've tried to keep track of what they've said about ski operations. I've also read and reread the late Fred Potts' book, Guide to Bush Flying, Concepts and Techniques for the Pro, which has the best discussion of operation on skis and in cold weather of anything I've ever found in one place. He also developed a web site featuring a wealth of information and background on bush flying and Alaska.
Skis? On An Airplane?
There are skis available for most all tailwheel airplanes and even a few of the nosewheel variety. You can buy skis on the new or used market and have them installed on your airplane in fairly short order. There are even folks around that can give you instruction in the ways of flying off of snow and ice so that you don't turn a fun experience into a chilly and expensive ordeal. For, as with any endeavor involving airplanes, there are some things to learn before schussing off to the great white north. For example, last year a couple landed their airplane on a frozen lake, let it slide to a stop and then broke through the ice. Sadly, they did not survive their mistake.
What Kind Of Skis?
There are two general types of skis for airplanes: wheel replacement skis and wheel penetration skis. The wheel replacement skis are, as the name implies, put on once the wheels are removed. The skis attach to the axles themselves. Wheel penetration skis have cutouts in the side so that the landing gear tires can protrude some distance through the ski. Some versions have a hydraulic mechanism to extend and retract the ski as appropriate for the landing surface. Others have a lever mechanism activated at the ski itself to pry the ski down below the wheel. The ski may only be "extended" while on the ground. A spring release operated from the cockpit allows the ski to be retracted when landing on plowed runways. The limitation on extension of the ski is no big deal, because even with the ski retracted the airplane can be landed in snow as the wheel still sticks a few inches through the ski. On the first landing on snow after departing a plowed runway the pilot merely stops, shuts down, gets out and levers the individual skis down.
Tailwheel skis are also available. Most have a permanent cutout for the tailwheel to protrude a few inches. Opinions vary as to the value of tailwheel skis; however, for operations in deep powder a tailwheel ski is needed, otherwise the tail section sinks into the snow until the horizontal stabilizer and elevators are resting on the snow. Not good. Moving the airplane may require adding power and full down elevator to blow the tail into the air. Turning can be extremely difficult, as the tail must be blown into the air, the turn made and then completely stopped before lowering the tail, so as to avoid bending the aft fuselage.
I've observed that one of the best ways to get serious winter pilots into an argument is to innocently ask whether one should use a tailwheel ski. Then walk away. Come back in 10 or 15 minutes to see if there has been any bloodshed. Without a tailwheel ski it is easier to stop the airplane in a short distance by pulling back hard on the stick, plus it is easier to keep the airplane straight after landing because of the drag of the tailwheel in the snow. In any kind of deep snow, however, the tailwheel drag in any side load can potentially damage the aft portion of the fuselage. Even with a tailwheel ski, applying full up elevator during the slideout after landing will slow the airplane down relatively effectively. I do not take sides on the issue (hey, I rent, and take what is available), but I recognize that there are locations and conditions where a tailwheel ski is essential and others where it is a handicap.
Watching pilots learn to master tailwheel airplanes I've found that one of the best ways to begin a tailwheel checkout is to start on skis. The airplane is much easier to control on the ground on skis than on wheels. The pilot gets a feel for the attitude and behavior of the airplane on the ground before switching to the further joys of wheeled operations. I keep recalling the words of an experienced, old Alaskan bush pilot who liked flying his Cub on floats or skis but just couldn't tolerate "them casters."
Preflighting On Skis
Aircraft And Equipment
Preflight involves looking at the condition of the skis, the attaching hardware and the bungees that keep the skis positioned slightly nose up in flight. If the airplane is on wheel replacement skis or retractable skis that have been left extended on snow, there is a good chance the skis will have frozen to the surface. Most all skis have a high-density polyethylene surface bonded or riveted to the underside to help fight the problem of freeze down. Nevertheless, it does occur. Give the airplane a bit of a shove and see if it slides. If it doesn't move relatively easily, the skis have probably frozen down, so it's worthwhile to get them broken loose before you get in and start up. By going to the point where the wing strut attaches to the wing and pushing and pulling carefully, it is usually possible to break the skis loose. Sometimes using the handles on the rear fuselage in front of the horizontal stabilizer and working fore and aft as well as side to side will solve the problem.
That exercise should serve to remind you that when you stop for any length of time it is a good idea to retract skis that can be retracted or, better still, taxi onto some brush, 2 x 4s or even garbage bags to keep the skis out of the snow. (Most bush pilots carry 2 x 4s and garbage bags in the baggage compartment for just that purpose.)
If you are going anywhere more than a very short distance from civilization, make sure you have survival equipment easily accessible in the airplane. I have one of the kits put together by Dr. Brent Blueand I now just toss it in the baggage compartment and put a Leatherman tool with a knife I can open with one hand in my pocket. Just because I'm going out to have fun doesn't mean I'm going to forget that winter can be serious.
Operations And Planning
Before you get in and start up, look around the area. Are you going to blow snow all over someone else's airplane and potentially clog an air intake? If you are one of those that feels it necessary to start at half throttle and see 1,700 rpm on the tach immediately upon starter disengagement, I don't have a lot of sympathy for you, but I do feel sorry for your engine, particularly in the cold. On skis you are going to discover your habit will cause the airplane to start moving. Immediately. Is there a clear space ahead so you don't hit anything before you get your act together and the power back where it should be?
If the airplane does not have a starter it means you are going to have to figure out how to prop it. Standing on snow or ice in front of an airplane that has no brakes can make you a Darwin Award candidate. Most likely you will be dealing with a J-3; therefore you prop it from behind the propeller. Put a person at the controls you trust and you have briefed. You stand with your left hand holding the open door frame at the front and your right hand on the propeller. Wear gloves. Thick ones, as you are going to curve your fingers over the trailing edge of the blade. Keep your legs well aft of the plane of rotation of the propeller. In fact, you may want to stand on the ski so that if the airplane moves you stay with it in the same relative location. Pull the propeller downward, snap your wrist to get it through a couple of compression strokes and, assuming the engine is in a reciprocating mood, you're in business. As for startup procedures in the cold, you might want to review the column, "Pilot's Lounge #5: Yes, It's Winter," right here on AVweb.
Unless you are on ice, the airplane will normally stop when power is brought back to idle. The distance it will slide depends on the nature and depth of the snow, so it is a matter of judgment for the pilot when taxiing and when it's time to come to a halt. Naturally, you want to take care of everything on the pretakeoff checklist you can before you bring the power up to do the mag and carb heat checks. The airplane will be moving for those checks, so have a plan in mind as to where you want to be going and don't spend too long looking at things in the cockpit.
Making a takeoff may only require that you make sure you have enough open space ahead, point the airplane into the wind and open her up. If using a runway and there is a crosswind, normal crosswind aileron techniques work just fine. As with any tailwheel airplane, pick a spot at least a half mile ahead of the airplane and keep the airplane going straight for it. Initially keep the elevators about neutral or slightly nose down, to avoid causing the tailwheel to dig in and slow things down. The tailwheel drag will tend to help keep the airplane going straight so that is an advantage until the rudder is effective. With full power across the rudder, it should become effective early in the takeoff run. Shortly after going to full power, go ahead and raise the tail just out of the snow to minimize drag. Keep the tail low to maintain an upward thrust line to help reduce the weight on the main gear skis. If there are packed areas where skiplanes have been operating, stay in the packed tracks to maximize acceleration. Yes, you can do it. Tailwheel airplanes have plenty of rudder control. With a little practice you can keep the airplane in an established set of tracks. If flaps are approved for takeoff, use them. Snow adds drag, so you want to persuade the airplane to fly at the slowest speed possible. Ordinarily the taildragger's attitude during the takeoff run is perfect for lifting off at a slow speed — the airplane will simply fly off the snow. Sometimes you find that you have to do a little work to break free if the snow is sticky. There are times that pulling one ski off will allow the reduced drag of just one ski in the snow to let you accelerate that extra knot or two you need to free the remaining ski. This is similar to "unsticking" a seaplane's float when flying from calm water.
In cold weather the engine develops more than its rated horsepower, so, once you get into the air, the climb rate will be brisk. However, snow conditions will dictate how fast, and even whether you will get into the air. Normally one plans for a takeoff run at least 10 percent longer than on wheels. Wet or very deep powder snow will add to that distance. There may be times you have to make a run or two to pack the snow down so that you can accelerate to liftoff speed. If you do, watch the engine temperatures; even on a very cold day you can overheat the engine, particularly if a winterization kit is installed.
There is a condition known as "overflow" on frozen lakes where water flows over the ice and saturates the snow on top of the ice. This can create a situation in which it is impossible to get the airplane moving fast enough to takeoff. That is one of the reasons you check out an unknown landing area prior to making a full-stop landing. We'll talk about that a little later.
Taking off on glare ice can allow you to meet your minimum daily need for adventure. While launching directly into the wind won't even get your attention unless you slam on full power and discover the rudder won't yet correct for P factor, whistling down a glare ice runway on a crosswind takeoff will elevate heart rate radically. You get to explore the concept of crabbing while on the ground and discovering that the amount of crab needed changes as the speed builds. Seriously consider landing elsewhere under those conditions because you simply may not be able to keep the airplane on the runway.
Can We Land On That Pretty Lake Over There?
So, how do you determine if that lovely, inviting, pristine lake off the wingtip is suitable for a landing? Take your time and look it over. First, what is the wind direction? Is there room to fly a nearly normal traffic pattern? After all, you want all the familiar trappings you can get when doing something new. Is the area for landing and takeoff long enough? You generally want to figure on having at least four or five times the expected takeoff run available for a landing site. What about obstructions on the approach and departure paths? Trees surround most northern lakes. Many have power lines at or near the shore. If the lake is in a long valley there is a good chance some enterprising utility has strung high-tension cables across the valley and hasn't bothered to mark them. Is there an island with a cabin on it? If so, the chances are that there is a power line across the lake to the cabin. Don't land until you either spot the line (look for the poles, lines can be devilishly hard to spot) or can convince a healthy skeptic (that's you) that there isn't one. In general, look the entire area over carefully.
If you've done your homework, you know the general thickness of the ice in the area. Six inches of clear ice is generally considered the bare minimum for a Cub. Anything larger requires eight inches. I generally prefer 10 inches of ice for full stop landings. The ice will be thicker in the center than at the shore. If there is a creek or river flowing into or out of the lake it is very possible that junction will be ice-free or will have very thin ice. Stay well away from those areas.
Try to pick a spot for landing where you have some sort of visual reference; a shoreline is ideal. Stay about 100 yards out from shore to avoid thin shore ice and, if possible, land parallel to the shore, into the wind.
The first landing on an unfamiliar frozen lake will not be a full-stop affair. You need to get more information about the ice and the condition of the snow. Plan on making a modified touch and go, staying on the ground for about three times the normal takeoff run of the airplane holding a speed about 10 knots below liftoff speed, in a tail-low attitude. Fly final, flare and make a gentle landing. Full stall is fine or a wheel (ski?) landing with the tail low is also satisfactory, but be ready for wet sticky snow that wants to slow you rapidly and pitch the nose down abruptly. Bring the power in smoothly to a setting that will let you stay about 10 knots below liftoff speed so you have weight on the skis so you can pop back into the air quickly if you see or feel something you don't like. Track as nearly straight as you can because you are going to make your next landing in those tracks. Yes, you can do it.
During the run take some looks at the spray off the skis to see if it is snow or liquid. Naturally, snow is good, liquid isn't. Near the end of the run smoothly slide in full power and let the airplane fly off. Turn crosswind and then a close-in downwind at about 300 feet agl. Look at the tracks. If they turn black, then water has flowed into them. That makes your decision easy. Don't land. Either the ice is not thick enough or an overflow condition exists or there is something else that is allowing liquid water where you don't want it.
If the tracks stay white, things should be okay for a full-stop landing. Those tracks provide a number of good things for you. They provide contrast with the surrounding snow to help with depth perception; and being packed snow, they help avoid freeze-down when you stop; and during the subsequent takeoff run they allow faster acceleration than in untouched snow.
As you slide to a stop again look at the spray off the skis. If it is snow, it's a good indication all is well; if it is liquid, bring the power up and depart.
Once you stop, wait a bit before you shut down. Feel the airplane. If it is moving more than you expect it to in the wind that exists, you may be starting to break through the ice. Depart. Immediately. Smoothly firewall the throttle and take off along the tracks you made, keeping the tail slightly low.
If all is well, shut down, get out and do what you need to avoid freeze-down.
Once you decide to depart, fire up, do your pretakeoff checks and take off along the tracks you made earlier.
I generally do not land on open fields that I do not know well. Besides the obvious problem of trespassing on private property, the snow may simply be a light covering concealing something waiting patiently to reduce the airplane to flinders.
There is a nasty little phenomenon in winter flying known as "flat light" that particularly affects skiplane operations. It is akin to glassy water operations in seaplanes. It has been reported as the probable cause of a number of accidents in the north. Under the right conditions of snow cover, overcast and visibility, it is absolutely impossible to tell your height over the ground once you get below about 300 feet. The most dangerous part of the problem is that pilots who have not experienced it absolutely cannot believe it could ever happen to them. Even pilots who do not have binocular vision are affected. It is real and it is serious. Many pilots notice it the first time when landing on an airport with a snow-covered runway. They notice that there are snow piles on either side of the runway; however, the piles do not appear to stick up. They simply look flat. It is not until you get down between them do you realize the piles are 10 or 15 feet tall and the world suddenly springs back into three dimensions.
I'm spending some extra time on flat light because it has bitten a lot of very good pilots. One of the most famous accidents involved a B-17 flying across the Greenland ice cap. It literally was flown onto slowly rising snowy terrain, coming to a rather ignominious stop. The ensuing rescue operation headed by famed polar aviator, Bernt Balchen, took months and cost several lives.
By the way, flat light is sometimes erroneously called a white out. A white out is a blizzard condition involving almost complete loss of visibility.
The solution to the flat light problem is to get some sort of contrast in the snow. The shoreline of the lake will usually work. On an open field tall grasses sticking up through the snow will provide the contrast needed to judge your height on an approach. Another solution, used by bush pilots, is to carry a bunch of red shop rags in the baggage compartment. Simply fly over the intended landing site and pitch two or three out. The red rags on the snow will let you figure out when to flare. It is considered very poor form to not pick them up after you land.
Snowmobiles: Just Say No
One of the realities of winter flying operations near human habitation is that many of the lakes are also playgrounds for snowmobiles. They have the positive effect of packing snow so that you usually don't have to worry about bogging down. However, ice that is thick enough for snowmobiles is not necessarily thick enough for airplanes. The downside of snowmobiles is that a frightening percentage of snowmobile operators have been drinking and find skiplanes to be wonderful sources of amusement. Accordingly, it is wise to remain well clear of them if possible. Keep in mind that snowmobiles tend to be blisteringly fast; many will go faster than 70 miles per hour. They also have dynamic braking, something you do not possess on skis. Never, ever start a takeoff with snowmobiles nearby. Never let them try to race you on takeoff. They will out-accelerate you quickly. Once in front they have a tendency, I don't understand why, to swerve to a point directly in front of the airplane and then come off the power so that the dynamic brake takes effect. You simply don't need that much excitement in your life.
Give It A Try
One of the great joys of aeronautical life is that moment after you have closed the throttle just as your skis start to brush the snow on the surface of a frozen lake. There, away from the rest of the world, as the snow starts to fly from the skis, you realize once again, that this is why you fly.
See you next month.
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Looking over the glareshield at the future of GA, I don’t get a good feeling about the FAA’s NextGen program and the 2020 ADS-B mandate. It’s not that I think the concept is flawed, although the agency seems to have done its best to complicate the deployment of this technology, which will eventually replace radar. And it’s not that I think it won’t work, even if the FAA is almost certainly oversold and overstated NextGen’s performance and benefits.
Based on questions I hear from readers, my worry is that the 2020 ADS-B mandate will be, for many owners, like the last exit before the toll booths on the GWB. It will catch many at just the right time in their flying lives to use it as an excuse to bolt from flying, resulting in two things we desperately don’t need: ever fewer active pilots and a glut of marginally equipped used airplanes driving down market values, but not far enough for them to find buyers.
One bright spot has just come into view in the form of a private industry/ government cooperative program to help finance aircraft NextGen upgrades. It’s called the NextGen Fund and we reported on it last week.
Normally, I’m skeptical of government programs that do what private industry really ought to be doing. Such initiatives tend to balloon into bloated, inefficient and expensive bureaucracies that are impossible to get rid of once they’ve shown how inept they really are. But the NexGen Fund is different.
First of all, it’s not a government program, nor does the government have much to do with it, other than providing treasury loan guarantees. I spoke with NextGen Fund’s Michael Dyment about the program earlier this week. Basically, the fund will seek capital in commercial markets which it will then loan to owners wishing to make NextGen-related upgrades including ADS-B, WAAS navigators, glass panels and so forth. Because the fund has made an agreement with the treasury to back the loans, it can offer them at a lower rate than an owner might get from commercial banks. How much lower and on what terms will be announced in the spring when the fund announces the structural details. My guess is the rates will knock a couple of points off commercial paper and since they’ll be unsecured, they may be easier to get.
I see this as win-win for owners and for the government. After all, in funding what is essentially the 21st-century aviation infrastructure, the FAA had no compunctions whatsoever in having users pay a substantial portion of the bill out of their own pockets. The same was true of GPS, so what’s the difference, you might ask? GPS had no mandate; you could take it or leave it. With ADS-B, you buy it or you don’t fly. So it’s perfectly appropriate for the government to protect its own interests—the $40 billion NextGen will cost—while helping owners shoulder what will be for many an investment they can just barely afford. Or perhaps one they don’t think is a good value. And really, those two are the same thing, so it doesn’t matter why you prime the pump as long as you get the water—equipage—flowing.
If this sounds like government competing with private enterprise, there’s a whiff of that. On the other hand, there’s nothing wrong with a little competition and I suspect the commercial banks will find plenty of profitable business as the NextGen equipage wave builds to a crescendo in a couple of years, or a little longer. Given the safety aspects of ADS-B and the efficiency claims the FAA is making, I think there’s a compelling public interest to jolly owners along with this kind of pot sweetener and I’m happy to see it. We all know that government regs are at least one reason GA is foundering. What’s wrong with a little support for the industry for a change?
Now that iPads have become the dominant portable navigation device, there are more accessory options than ever to pick from, including remote GPS receivers. In this video, Aircraft Spruce's Ryan Deck walks us through three popular solutions.
Wayne Boggs is best known for keeping the performers and spectators safe at some of the world's biggest air shows, including AirVenture. A week from Sunday, he and his team will be orchestrating the safe and timely arrival and departure of about 600 business jets filled with spectators for one of the world's biggest sports spectacles. AVweb's Russ Niles spoke with Boggs about how he helps make that happen.
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