FSGA 99-02: General Aviation 14 CFR Parts 91 and 125 Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)
The text of the FAA document.
|BULLETIN TYPE:||Flight Standards Information Bulletin (FSIB) for General Aviation (FSGA)|
|BULLETIN NUMBER:||FSGA 99-02|
|BULLETIN TITLE:||General Aviation 14 CFR Parts 91 and 125 Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)|
1. PURPOSE. This bulletin provides operational policies, procedures, and training requirements for Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) conducted by pilots operating under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 91 and 125. Appendix A contains LAHSO definitions, general operational requirements, and procedures. Appendix B contains specific requirements for operations conducted under 14 CFR part 91. Appendix C contains specific requirements for operations conducted under 14 CFR part 125 and operators authorized to conduct operations under a Letter of Deviation Authority. Appendix D contains sample Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) paragraph A027. This information is critical to the safety of LAHSO and will be issued in conjunction with FAA Notice 7110.199 and revised Aeronautical Information Manual information published in FAA Notice 7110.199.
2. BACKGROUND. On April 11, 1997, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) expanded and replaced Simultaneous Operations on Intersecting Runways (SOIR) with Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO). SOIR, used since 1968, exclusively described simultaneous operations on two intersecting runways, either two aircraft landing simultaneously, or one aircraft landing while another is taking off. LAHSO includes landing operations to hold short of an intersecting runway, taxiway, predetermined point, or an approach/departure flight path. LAHSO, just as was SOIR, is an air traffic control tool used to increase airport capacity, maintain system efficiency, and enhance safety. LAHSO procedures are currently being used at almost 850 intersecting runway combinations at more than 220 airports in the United States. On February 8, 1999, the FAA, in coordination with industry, outlined changes in policy and procedures for conducting LAHSO. LAHSO procedures require both pilot and controller participation to balance the need for system efficiency and safety.
NOTE: The information in this bulletin does NOT change the existing requirements in place for principal operations or other inspectors but adds information needed by general aviation (14 CFR part 91) operators.
A. Aviation Safety Program. The national Aviation Safety Program through its network of Safety Program Managers (Operations) and 4,000 plus Aviation Safety Counselors are responsible for the dissemination of LAHSO guidance and the conduct of knowledge-based, aviation safety seminars about LAHSO.
B. Designated Pilot Examiners (DPE) and Certificated Flight Instructors (CFI). DPE and CFI are responsible to ensure that candidates, during the conduct of practical tests for new certificates and/or ratings and during flight reviews, have a basic knowledge and understanding of LAHSO.
2. TITLE 14 CFR PART 91 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS.
A. Title 14 CFR part 91 operators shall, using one or more of the Knowledge Based Training Methodologies outlined below, become completely familiar with and have a good basic understanding of LAHSO procedures prior to accepting a LAHSO clearance. The LAHSO knowledge-based training may be accomplished using one or any combination of the methods listed below:
(1) Review pertinent sections of the AIM to include the basic LAHSO definitions as redefined in the attached revision to AIM, the A/FD, FDC NOTAM's, and other charting publications;
(2) Attendance at FAA and/or industry safety education seminars that include LAHSO as an emphasis topic;
(3) Successful completion of the flight review (as required by 14 CFR section 61.56) which contains procedural guidance on LAHSO operations: and
(4) Successful completion of a flight instructor refresher clinic that includes guidance on LAHSO operations.
B. The knowledge-based training will include as a minimum the following elements:
(1) LAHSO guidance contained in AIM and this bulletin;
(2) Land and hold short concept with emphasis on reduced runway availability, stabilized approach criteria, and touchdown point accuracy;
(a) A discussion of the definition of available landing distance as defined by the applicable regulation,
(b) Approved LAHSO airports and runway configurations,
(c) Use of visual aids during LAHSO (i.e., vertical guidance, runway lighting, signs, and markings),
(d) Computing required landing distance,
(e) Rejected Landing Procedures, and
(f) Minimum equipment list requirements and the interaction with the stopping capability of the aircraft.
3. COMPUTATIONS FOR REQUIRED LANDING DISTANCES. Required landing distance (as per 14 CFR section 91.103(b)) will be the distance as determined from the FAA-approved AFM or POH over a 50-foot obstacle plus 1,000 feet. The computation is based upon the aircraft configuration, environment, and the weight actually used for landing.
NOTE: If the AFM/POH does not publish landing data over a 50-foot obstacle, then the computation will be based upon the AFM/POH landing data for existing conditions plus 1,000 feet.
4. SAMPLE REQUIRED LANDING DISTANCE CALCULATION. The following example of a required landing distance computation for LAHSO is predicated on a standard reciprocating engine, light twin aircraft operating under 14 CFR part 91. For the illustration, one assumes the following hypothetical aircraft and airport conditions:
A. Aircraft landing weight 5,039 pounds., OAT deg. 25 C (77 deg. F), wind component of 9.5 knots, and no runway slope.
- total landing distance over a 50-foot obstacle 2,500 feet,
- add 1,000 feet,
- equals the required landing distance of 3,500 feet
B. In the above example, the pilot would be unable to accept a LAHSO clearance for any runway that has an ALD less than 3,500 feet.