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Icon Aircraft has pushed back customer deliveries until at least 2017 and has announced a major revision of its controversial purchase agreement. In a conference call held with invited aviation media representatives, CEO Kirk Hawkins cited manufacturing difficulties as the reason for the delivery delays. “We have to slow down so we can go fast,” he told the conference call. In a news release issued just prior to the conference call, Thomas Wieners, the VP of manufacturing, said the “ambitious plans” to build 175 aircraft in 2016 have been scaled back to just 20 aircraft. “After completing seven aircraft, with 11 more in production and having received a total of 30 composite airframe sets, we’ve learned that our production process and parts of our supply chain are not yet ready for high-rate production,” he said. The company will lay off 60 employees and terminate 90 contractors. A total of 160 employees will remain with the company.

None of the 20 aircraft to be built this year will be delivered to any of the 1850 position holders Icon says it now has deposits from. Instead, they will be distributed among three to four training centers. The Vacaville, California, training center will remain in operation and new ones will be built in Florida, Texas and possibly southern California, Hawkins said. Hawkins said using the first 20 aircraft for training will smooth the transition to high-rate production by ensuring customers are ready to fly their aircraft when the deliveries begin.

Hawkins declined to say whether EAA’s Young Eagles program will receive the A5 that Icon “delivered” in a splashy ceremony at last year’s AirVenture. EAA had planned to auction the $250,000 aircraft at the Gathering of Eagles fundraising dinner at AirVenture 2016 but the aircraft was trucked back to California after AirVenture. Hawkins said he’s discussed the auction aircraft with EAA Chairman Jack Pelton and wants to talk more with Pelton before saying any more on the subject. EAA spokesman Dick Knapinski said the organization was under the impression the aircraft would be in Oshkosh at the end of July but will clarify the status of the airplane this week.

Icon was not going to release details of its amended purchase agreement on the conference call, saying the news about the delivery delay superseded those developments. However, during the conference call, Flying Magazine posted a story on its website with details of the new agreement and Hawkins relented. He admitted the first stab at an agreement, a 40-page document with plenty of legal twists and turns, was overly complicated and had too much legalese. “It should not have gone out in the form it went out [in] without explanation,” he said. 

The new agreement will be a quarter of the length and absent some of the more controversial clauses that resulted in significant backlash from customers and aviation media commentators. The 30-year life limit has been removed and the 10-year mandatory overhaul will remain but the cost will be capped at $15,000. The so-called “responsible flier clause” in which Icon pilots were bound to be safe, competent and respectful has been tossed. “It was very subjective and not that enforceable,” he said.

A requirement that new pilots fly solo for at least 10 hours has been changed to a recommendation and Icons will not be equipped with automatic audio and video recorders that must be maintained and operated. Icon has also removed a clause giving the company right of first refusal to buy back aircraft being sold by the owners within the first 12 months of ownership. Hawkins said the clause was intended to prevent flipping by brokers and speculators and not control the secondary market. 

The company is keeping some of the agreement’s sections that caused considerable controversy when they were first released. New owners will have to undergo flight training authorized by Icon and agree to the revised maintenance schedule and standards. A flight data recorder will be installed on every aircraft and must be maintained in operating condition. The new agreement retains the covenant not to sue Icon for accidents the NTSB determines were not caused by flaws with the aircraft. Icon will waive that clause for a payment of $10,000.

The company wants the agreement to be passed on to future owners of used Icons. Owners who sell their aircraft will be required to transfer the “ongoing managing pilot agreement” to buyers or pay a $5,000 fee to Icon. The agreement will specify that the new owners will have to live up to the original purchase agreement, as amended, with regard to training, maintenance and operation. Icon will “incentivize” the perpetuation of the agreement by offering those who sell their aircraft $5,000 worth of options on a new Icon.

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Two Navy F/A-18 Super Hornets crashed off the coast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, Thursday. The four crew members escaped with minor injuries. A Coast Guard helicopter pulled two of the crew from the water while the two others were rescued by a commercial fishing boat, according to an Associated Press report. The fighter jets, based at Virginia Beach, crashed about 10:40 a.m. after what the Navy called an “in-flight mishap.” News reports said the jets collided, but details on their flight condition prior to the crash weren’t available.

Officials said the airmen were "alert and talking" when rescued. Two were carried into a hospital while the others walked in, the AP reported. "We're happy to have brought everyone home safely today," a Navy official said. A member of the Coast Guard rescue crew told the AP the crew ejected from the aircraft, and pieces of at least one of the aircraft were seen on the water during the rescue. The fighters were on a training flight. The Navy is investigating.

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Fly-in procedures for this year’s EAA AirVenture show in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, are now available, along with additional resources. The FAA’s Notice to Airmen for EAA’s 64th annual convention, July 25-31, includes a list of changes from 2015 including radio frequencies and runway markings. Pilots planning to fly to Oshkosh are urged to study the Notam in advance and carry a printed or electronic copy in the cockpit. The document includes VFR and IFR arrival and departure procedures, guidelines for taxiing and parking, and instructions for certain kinds of aircraft, such as seaplanes, rotorcraft, ultralights, turbine aircraft and warbirds. The Notam takes effect at 6 a.m. local time July 22 until noon on Aug. 1.

Among the changes this year are separate frequencies for arrivals and departures, including ATIS. Runway 36R will have new markings, a red square and green square, while 36L will have the same four colored dots. Also, turboprops, turbojets and warbirds with cruise speeds of 130 knots or faster must advise ATC if they weigh more than 12,500 pounds. The Notam is available online and free printed copies are available. For pilots who want additional details, registration is now open for a June 8 webinar hosted by EAA NOTAM chairman Fred Stadler. For general safety guidance, the NTSB has a Safety Alert (PDF) for flying to major airshows.

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The CAFE Foundation has been through big changes over the last year, with new leadership and a new venue for their 10th annual Electric Aircraft Symposium, and program coordinator Yolanka Wulff told AVweb this week the new strategies are working well. “We moved our conference to the Bay area, and part of that was a re-visioning on the part of CAFE about our mission,” she said. The symposium had previously been held in Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County, but now has moved to the Marriott Waterfront in San Francisco, less than 10 minutes from the airport. The location is more convenient for those attending, Wulff said, and also is just 10 minutes away from the concurrent Maker Faire, an annual event drawing more than 150,000 people, in which CAFE took part.

Participating in the Maker Faire advances CAFE’s goal to engage and educate the public, she said. “We had an exhibit area that drew an enormous amount of attention to electric flight,” said Wulff. “The amount of interest was incredible.” Another goal is to help develop market opportunities for electric flight technology, she said, and the new location, close to Silicon Valley, also advanced that agenda. “We had a number of investors and venture capitalists in the audience who hadn’t come before, and there were good discussions between the technology developers and investors,” she said. “One of the themes that really came through was the importance of understanding the business case while developing the technology.” CAFE plans to offer the conference again next year at the same venue, concurrent with Maker Faire, Wulff said. She added that several of this year’s participants, including representatives from e-volo, are interested in bringing full-size operational aircraft for display at next year’s event.


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AVweb’s review of aviation news around the world found announcements from ACSS, Leonardo-Finmeccanica, Mecaer Aviation Group and Scotland’s Glasgow Prestwick Airport. ACSS, an L-3 and Thales Company, has developed an ADS-B transponder solution for legacy corporate aircraft, the NXT-700. This next-generation Mode S transponder will satisfy the DO-260B mandate for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) on many legacy aircraft models. Leonardo-Finmeccanica, through its aircraft division, and Canada-based Esterline CMC Electronics (CMC) have strengthened their relationship as part of Team Spartan through an agreement for the supply of high-performance avionics systems for the C-27J Spartan fleet.

Mecaer Aviation Group Inc. (MAG) announced it has signed with a United States-based customer to take delivery of a Bell 429 MAGnificent interior. The signing is the first for a North American operator under Federal Aviation Administration flight rules. The announcement follows a recent validation with the FAA. Andrew Miller, Glasgow Prestwick Airport Chairman, announced the appointment of Ron Smith as the airport’s permanent Chief Executive Officer. Ron will take up this post from Monday May 30. Ron joins the airport following a period as General Operations Manager for CHC Helicopters Aberdeen.

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The holiday weekend has a lot in store on SocialFlight, from campouts, poker runs and plenty of food. A weekend of camping, entertainment and cookouts awaits at Llano Municipal Airport in Texas, where ShareAviation will have burgers, brats and hot dogs on the grill along with campground games and an outdoor movie on a 12-foot screen.

On Sunday, enjoy a barbecue meal, live music, free airplane rides and more at the 2016 Air Galore BBQ and Golden Eagle Celebration in Little River, California. The airport is raising funds for new runway cameras. Rental cars will be half price, and rides into Mendocino are free.

Great Bend Municipal Airport in Kansas will host its first Poker Run on Saturday, which heads to Pratt, Dodge City, Hays and then back to Great Bend. Enjoy a free pancake breakfast and a hamburger lunch. The briefing starts at 9 a.m. and ends after the poker run with prizes and lunch starting at 3 p.m.

Also Saturday, the hosts at Blue Mountain Air Park in Georgia invite all to their spring fly-in, featuring a southern gourmet breakfast followed by barbecue for lunch.  Primitive camping is available starting Friday for the weekend, and bonfires and grills will light up both nights. For more on this weekend's events, visit SocialFlight.


Because of design, certification and insurance costs, the OEM industry is hobbled with a rather arcane system of pricing replacement parts. When it comes to interior plastic parts—like a window molding, hinge cover or a glove box overlay, for example—a couple of dollars’ worth of plastic becomes a $400 part simply because of its unique shape and application. 

Fortunately, there are several smaller companies that can design, fabricate and sell certified parts for much less than an OEM. In fact, it’s not uncommon for an OEM to buy  parts from these replacement shops.

We covered certified fiberglass replacement parts in the February 2014 issue of Aviation Consumer and found that fiberglass costs more than plastic, it’s more resistant to damage and is easier to repair than plastic.

But don’t think that plastic parts are old technology and no longer viable. In most cases, plastic will get the job done and when used in areas that aren’t subjected to temperature, sunlight or heavy usage, can be a viable long-term option. But replacing plastic components won’t come without some challenges. Here’s a look at the market and what to expect in your search.

Plastics 101

For the most part, plastic will be ABS or Kydex. Kydex—a combination of acrylic and PVC plastics—was developed in 1965 purely for the intent of making aircraft interior parts. Kydex is highly flame retardant and might be required by an OEM for initial installation. Kydex has different finished textures and comes in colors. It’s also expensive, so most aftermarket shops keep the price down by using other forms of sheet goods.

PVC or Poly-vinyl Chloride is a tough material. This toughness, combined with the flexibility and malleability of Acrylic lends itself to the thermal forming of complex parts, both large and small. PVC is resistant to a number of chemicals, can be finished with different textures and colored with paints that use a flex agent. PVC is made in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, and comes in sheets in a number of colors and thickness. Few parts are made with PVC, but it can be found.

The most popular interior plastic is ABS, or Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. ABS is an extremely tough, formable plastic and it gets a high gloss when worked at the right temperature. Available in a few colors, Cessna and Piper originally used all ABS for its trims and fairings. When painted and ultraviolet-protected, it can last for 15-20 years. While resilient, ABS will support flame under high temperatures.

Big Dogs

There are three main producers of aftermarket plastic parts, plus a few smaller shops around the country that make a limited number of items for less popular models. We will present overviews of the major providers and their pedigrees so you’ll know where to start in your search.

If you must have an OEM original, Preferred Airparts sells new surplus Cessna parts for a slight discount over factory new prices. Speaking of OEM parts, it’s not uncommon to pay a 50 percent price premium for them over aftermarket replacements. The advantage, however, is OEM parts should provide a perfect fit without trimming or drilling mounting holes. But you’ll likely face long lead times because OEM parts are generally made in batches, with intervals between production runs.

A couple of outfits claim to specialized in interior plastic components for certain aircraft makes. Two of these are PAST, a major supplier of Piper replacement parts­, and Texas Aeroplastics, specialize in Cessna applications.

PAST, which used to be Heinol and Associates, was run by Al Heinol, a guy with a rich background in tool and die manufacturing for the automotive industry. Many of the older plastic steering wheels on American-made cars were produced on the tooling developed by Al Heinol. Heinol was known to make parts that had an accurate and quality fit. The Heinol parts catalogue focused on a wide variety of Piper applications, including the Aerostar and Navajo. The plastics manufacturing community has countless stories of Heinol’s love/hate relationship with the FAA (he loved to hate them, we’re told). In early 2013, the company was purchased by Alva, Oklahoma-based Premier Aerospace Service and Technology (PAST) and is becoming one of the major players in the aircraft interior parts business.

Scott Brown, PAST’s president, was once the president of Vantage Plane Plastics before aggressively pursuing the parts vending for the OEM industry and today supplies a number of parts to major manufacturers. The purchase of Heinol is an effort to keep the crew working between aftermarket supply and production runs for Cessna. At the same time, the company is building a larger inventory of Cessna replacement parts.

The Heinol buyout was typical of a company that wants to be aggressive, wants to enter a market with proven products and importantly, reap the benefits of having the legwork already in place. Consider that Heinol owned the tooling and inventory for scores of Piper parts, and more importantly, the paperwork that made them legal to install in aircraft. That’s a huge benefit for the consumer in terms of availability and costs.

The FAA requires sizable hoop-jumping when it comes to PMA parts and the STC that permits a legal installation. The PMA and the STC are treated separately, each with its own set of requirements and each handled in a different office. This creates an interim during which only completed, certified parts can be sold by the new company. PAST was surprised to find out that only a few of the 235 part numbers Heinol offered were actually legal. These days, along with making OEM parts for Cessna, PAST is busy acquiring certification for over 700 part numbers (in batches), developing its own manuals, storage, inventory and manufacturing areas, materials and techniques for the PMA approval. Interestingly, OEM manufacturing entails no FAA involvement or inspections.

Founded in 1981 by Jerry Evans, Texas AeroPlastics has been building Cessna interior parts for 33 years. While the company has downsized to a skeleton crew and moved to a smaller shop on the Northwest Regional Airport in Roanoke, Texas, the operation is efficient. As the name implies, Evans focuses on aftermarket Cessna parts and has partnered with different shops over the years to share information and better the fit and quality of the parts. The company fabricates its parts exclusively with ABS plastic and most parts are painted for UV protection. Besides the inventory of certified parts, the company sells maintenance items, lighting products and a leading-edge STOL kit.

Alva, Oklahoma-based Vantage Plane Plastics originated in 1961 as Kinzie Products. As a Hughes helicopter repair station, it began manufacturing its own parts—and learning the tricks of certification—when certain helicopter parts were unobtainable.

In the early 1980s, the company bought a Cessna 207 and found there were limited sources for aircraft interior parts, so it began building them itself. It accumulated a parts inventory of 3500 interior and exterior parts and is still growing. The plastic division of the company began in 1999 as Plane Plastics. Needing more technical and financial resources, it was sold to Vantage in November 2000. In 2005, the company built a new facility in San Diego, California.

Vantage builds parts for Boeing and other major airframe manufacturers, in addition to the U.S. military. The Vantage division of Plane Plastics is autonomous and managed by Mark Severs, a lifelong manufacturing expert, and Dale Logsdon, an A&P mechanic with IA privileges. The company employs only 18 people and 15 of them work in production.

It’s said that Plane Plastics is the big dog in the aircraft plastics yard because it can produce replacement plastic for nearly every general aviation aircraft out there. It continues to acquire pieces that will eventually make it into the inventory. To date, the Plane Plastics catalog has roughly 3500 parts and there are another 350 parts currently submitted for PMA and STC certification.

The company has a vast mold inventory. When we visited the facility, we saw row after row of 20-foot-tall shelving that’s dedicated to housing an inventory of 200 most popular replacement plastic parts. To better maintain stock, each part is bar-coded and a computer automatically schedules a production run when the supply gets low.  

Plane Plastics offers its parts in three colors and the parts themselves are made of thicker plastic than the plastic material used by an OEM, but there’s a tradeoff.

Thicker plastic can create a tight fit during the installation process, but the parts seem more robust and sturdy. The primary material used is ABS, but some parts are made of Kydex. The company website has a section showing how to measure and duplicate holes and is a good source for searching part numbers.

It’s important to note that color choices will be limited for most aftermarket plastic components. That’s a problem if you are trying to match the rest of the plastic or interior coloring of vintage aircraft. This means you’ll be faced with the additional task of painting the parts. Several suppliers told us the best long-term option is to apply vinyl dye to white or almond-colored parts. The soaking dye lasts longer and won’t dull the plastic finish.

Inherent Variations

Many parts will require placards that you’ll need to source on your own. We noted that Plane Plastics includes placards on a Cessna pedestal/trim housing. Of the parts we looked at, some are thin and some are made of thicker plastic sheets. When a thickness is chosen, it is based on the so-called draw, or how much the materiel will have to stretch when vacuum-formed over a mold.

A minimum thickness is important for both appearance and longevity. While thicker parts seem more robust, an entire interior replaced with the thickest sheeting can weigh up to 25 pounds more than the original parts. Cessna was notorious for producing extremely thin parts, but that helped with achieving a more favorable useful load. We suggest revising the aircraft weight and balance data after replacing all or most of the interior plastic. In some cases, it’s a good idea to have the aircraft weighed.

We discovered an interesting tidbit during our research. Mark Severs, who worked at Boeing, explained the discrepancies in part sizes that often lead to warranty work. A 747, if built to maximum tolerance in the fixtures, will have an extra row of seats compared to the same plane built to minimum tolerances. That’s a three-foot difference in cabin size. Severs explained that scaled down, it is not unusual for a Cessna or a Piper to be a half-inch longer or shorter. This can often be a problem when fitting aftermarket plastic parts.

To keep tabs on the fitment of its parts, Plane Plastics has a few airplanes in its hangar that it will randomly fit parts on to make sure the molds aren’t changing dimension. In addition, they’ll perform a factory installation at the owner’s request. Other shops have other ways of ensuring proper fit, often rebuilding parts while having the ill-fitting part in hand.

At most shops, a lot of time is spent repairing or upgrading molds. Different materials and resins have been used to make molds and while some hold up, others do not. In the old days, wood was used, but over time it expands and contracts with temperatures and ultimately cracks. Plaster was another medium, but it’s quite heavy and can shrink .

Some molds were made of aluminum, but when a hot part contacts cold aluminum, it immediately cools, deforming the part. New resins eliminate much of this and hopefully the repairs that become necessary for a proper fit during installation.

Certification Matters

Occasionally, a shop will have a part that is pending FAA certification and will sell this as a so-called owner-supplied part, while noting that the certification is missing. It’s up to the owner to install the part or a mechanic to note it’s an owner-provided part—an avenue taken by all of the plastic suppliers. Al Heinol used it like a magic wand. Despite having a non-certificated status, many of Heinol’s parts were arguably the nicest in the industry thanks to his tooling background.

This brings to question the necessity of requiring certification on cosmetic parts, save for burn testing. Many argue that cosmetic parts are as detrimental to an aircraft’s airworthiness as a headset is. Thankfully, a farsighted FAA has allowed for out-of-production parts to be used without certification if the owner provides instructions for making the part, proves its fit and function and signs off the installation in the aircraft logbook. Sending the old part to a manufacturer for use as a pattern qualifies the fit and function process.

Of the shops we visited, we think Plane Plastics is the size and volume leader, plus it has a resourceful web-site. PAST is growing into the number two slot for parts availability. All of the suppliers said that if they don’t have a part, they know who does and will lead customers to the source. That’s a welcomed gesture.

This article originally appeared in the May 2014 issue of Aviation Consumer magazine.

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If there was any surprise in Wednesday’s announcement about production delays for the Icon A5, it’s that the company was so forthright in admitting what many have suspected for months. There’s a reason Icon isn’t delivering and for a company that has been obsessive about its image and marketing with a close-to-the-vest press policy, it was refreshing to hear some answers that made sense.

Basically, with about 1850 orders on the books, Icon finds itself laying off people while it has hundreds of airplanes to build. How bizarre is that? Not very, actually. Icon is in the good company of Boeing, Cirrus, Eclipse and even Cessna. Every one of these companies has, at times, struggled with the overwhelming challenge of organizing high-volume serial production. It’s difficult enough with toasters and tires, but evidently orders of magnitude worse with airplanes.

The reasons are myriad and not easily solvable, even when you can see them coming. Boeing, for instance, consumed the entire crosswind runway at Paine Field in Washington state with factory-fresh 787s. First it was structural and weight issues, then the battery fire problem and most recently vendor delays on seats. Meanwhile, vendors keep vending, piling up parts and assemblies while the factory starts and stops. Or just doesn’t start at all. Or can’t stop. Remember the 747s parked at Everett in 1970 with concrete blocks tied to the engine nacelles? Pratt & Whitney couldn’t deliver engines, or at least engines that worked.

Sometime around 2000, I think, I sat in a conference room talking to Alan Klapmeier about the fact that Cirrus was laying off workers as orders for the SR20 and the new SR22 flooded in. The production line hadn’t been organized enough to put the assemblers to work, so they were sent home. Vendor production schedules were uncertain, equipment wasn’t in place and a thousand little details were undone. Edge-of-technology electronic tracking is supposed to help such things, but sometimes all these systems do is time-stamp the chaos. 

With every new airplane project, we in the press sometimes give the impression, probably by omission, that we think this time it will be different. But it rarely is. And the more ambitious the program, the higher the likelihood that aspiration will be dope-slapped by reality.

And that’s where Icon is. It needs, as CEO Kirk Hawkins said, to slow down before it can go fast. It may take a while to figure that out and I won’t be surprised to see further stops and starts. Now, just as Cirrus did, and Eclipse did and even Boeing did, Icon enters the red risk zone. It’s burning money without bringing in substantial revenue. Cirrus survived this; the original Eclipse did not. Developments like these tend to spook investors, committed buyers and would-be buyers. The whiff of blood in the water sends some to the exits and the only realistic response for the company is to confront the reality honestly, explain it and illuminate the plan by releasing all but the most proprietary information. I give Icon credit for doing that this week. It was as voluble and least controlling as I’ve seen them be.  

Although it wasn’t a planned part of the press conference, Hawkins also released details of the revised buyer agreement. The original, you’ll recall, stirred a storm of negative reaction just ahead of Sun ‘n Fun, with a list of legal contract specifications many considered onerous and unnecessary.

Hawkins conceded the error. “It should not have gone out in the form it went out without an explanation. They had a right to be taken aback,” he said. The original intent, Hawkins explained, was to gain an acknowledgment from buyers that they understood the product liability risk Icon viewed itself as operating under.

To mitigate the damage, Icon dropped the more overbearing aspects of the agreement, including lifting the requirement for an audio/video recorder, yanking the “responsible flyer” clause, placing a $15,000 bounded price on the required airframe overhaul and removing the 30-year life limit.

However, the covenant not to sue Icon remains, as do requirements to use only Icon-approved (but not necessarily Icon-provided) training and maintenance. One sticky point Icon is retaining is insistence on involvement in the secondary sale to another owner. If the original owner sells to someone who hasn’t signed the buyer agreement with Icon, he’ll owe the company $5000. To incentivize that, Icon will offer the seller $5000 in options toward a new A5. Icon also dropped the right of first refusal to buy back the airplane that was found in the original contract.

The new agreement strikes me as far more reasonable and realistic. During April and early May, I conducted a series of interviews with industry executives and potential buyers. The full report appears in the June issue of Aviation Consumer. Not one person I spoke to thought the lawsuit covenant was a bad idea, nor do I. It’s a reasonable way to reduce liability exposure. I like the data recorder idea, too, and have no issue with the training and maintenance requirement, provided Icon takes steps to offer this themselves or trains and approves people who can. But the secondary sale restriction? I’m not sure all buyers will accept that. In my view, all it does is to sharply restrict the potential buyer universe for a primary buyer and potentially reduce the used value of the aircraft, thus placing an unreasonable burden on the original buyer. There’s no way in hell I’d have signed the original agreement. The revised version? Maybe, but the secondary sale restriction still gives me pause.

Icon pledges to release the detailed, much shortened version of the buyer agreement in a few days. You can read it and decide for yourself. As the company goes into a months-long period of retooling for efficient, rapid production, it will need all the loyal buyers and good press it can get. Hawkins admitted the delay will tarnish enthusiasm for the A5, but he at least took a step to minimize that this week. Furthermore, as the factory gears for building production airplanes, the company will use the airplanes it has available to begin training pilots and owners. The more of these flights that take place, the better. We’ll have a better chance of finding out if the A5 is as good as Icon says it is.  

In the next blog, I'll look at how Icon's plans might affect the GA market.

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The CAFE organization has been through big changes this year, and last week offered a whole new version of their 10-year-old annual Electric Aircraft Symposium, with a new venue and some new ideas about emphasis and priorities. 



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