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General aviation accident rates dropped in 2015 amid a rise in flight hours, according to figuresreported by the National Transportation Safety Board Thursday. The preliminary data reported for GA operations added up to 1,209 accidents last year, 229 of those involving 376 fatalities, including three people on the ground. The GA accident rate last year was 5.85 per 100,000 flight hours, with a rate of 1.09 for fatal accidents. That’s down from 6.23 accidents per 100,000 hours a year prior, with a fatality rate of 1.31 per 100,000 hours in 2014.

The board and the FAA have focused on educating pilots on loss-of-control safety and use of technology in recent years, emphasizing LOC as the ongoing top cause of GA crashes. Stick-and-rudder skills have gained renewed attention and the FAA also is promoting the use of new tools such as angle-of-attack indicators in GA aircraft. “Even though the fatality rate in 2015 was the lowest it has been in many years, 376 people still lost their lives, which is why improving general aviation safety is on the NTSB’s Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements,” said NTSB Chairman Christopher A. Hart. “While lower, these numbers are still too high.’’ Flights under Part 135, including commuter and on-demand operations, saw five total accidents in 2015 with one fatality, resulting in an accident rate of 1.458 per 100,000 hours flown – nearly level with 2014, when four accidents and no fatalities were reported. Meanwhile, U.S. air carriers saw no fatalities in 2015 or 2014.

(Clarification: GA accidents for 2015 added up to 1,209 total with 229 of those involving fatalities.)

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The FAA’s long-awaited ADS-B rebate program is now online, and despite a few first-day glitches with the system early Monday morning that were quickly smoothed out, it’s been getting plenty of takers. “We’re up to 1,360 applicants as of the end of the day on Tuesday,” David Gray, the FAA’s program manager for ADS-B, told AVweb Wednesday afternoon. It’s hard to predict if that rate will continue, grow or decrease, Gray said, but he added it’s in the best interest of aircraft owners to start the process sooner rather than later. The $500 rebates are limited to the first 20,000 takers, and Gray said while he doesn’t expect to reach that number within the next few weeks, he does expect to reach it well before the program’s 12-month expiration date.

The program allows 90 days from the time owners register for the rebate until they complete the work. Gray said he believes there is plenty of capacity in avionics shops to get the work done. “So far we’ve only heard from a couple of people with scheduling problems, and we’re trying to work with those people,” said Gray. The FAA’s ADS-B Rebate website provides plenty of resources for owners who want to start the process. “The first step is to decide you’re going to get this done,” Gray said. “The next step is, go to the website.” The site lays out a five-step process — make a plan, reserve your rebate, get the install done, fly and validate, then file your rebate claim. The site also offers a vast selection of FAQs, a 10-minute instructional video that walks you through the process, and quick-reference PDFs.

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Reno racer Thom Richard is glad to be alive after another airplane hit his disabled race plane, narrowly missing the top of his head. “The impact was violent and loud,” Richard wrote on YouTube, a fact made clear by the cockpit video clearly showing the incident. Richard had stopped on the runway to check on an engine issue, and had signaled the starters to halt the launch process. “The flagman on my row put his hands in an ‘X’ over his head, as our procedures prescribe, and I opened my canopy to make it clear I was out of the race and so everyone could see me,” Richard wrote. But two airplanes zoomed past, and a third came up fast behind Richard’s stopped airplane. Its wing hit the rear of Richard’s airplane, narrowly missing the top of his head. The airplane was spun around nearly 180 degrees, “like a teacup ride at warp eight,” Richard wrote.

Richard’s hand was hurt in the accident; the other pilot was unhurt. Richard says on YouTube he’s “not the slightest bit upset about the accident ... there’s risk in everything we do.” He adds that he’s used up one of his nine lives. “But why would you have nine unless you plan to use them?” he adds. “We live, learn, and race on.” The airplane, “Hot Stuff,” was severely damaged, and Richard said it will take some time to assess whether it can be repaired. The incident occurred on Sunday, the last day of this year’s Reno Championship Air Races, but Richard just posted the video on Tuesday.

AVweb’s search of news in aviation found announcements from Boeing, King Schools, Future and Active Pilot Advisors and Pacific Propeller International. Boeing has selected Rockwell Collins to provide its industry-leading touchscreen flight displays for all five flight deck displays on the new Boeing 777X. The advanced touchscreen capability will make the flight deck more intuitive for pilots and more efficient for flight operations. Pilots who want to get full utility from the Garmin GTN 650 or 750 can now connect with King Schools and take the “Garmin GTN Essentials” online course on their computer, tablet or smartphone. Garmin’s GTN Essentials course is hosted on the King Schools iLearn pilot education platform.

The Future and Active Pilot Advisors (FAPA) and industry sponsors like Piedmont, Aerosim Flight Academy, Ameriflight, SkyWest and ExpressJet will gather for the next jobs forum, this Saturday, Sept. 24, at the Hilton Newark Penn Station. FAPA's forum, created to connect future airline pilots with the resources they need to successfully win their first, or their next, cockpit position, is open to anyone interested in meeting with airline or flight school representatives. The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration has awarded Pacific Propeller International (PPI) a five-year support contract to provide overhaul services for the Hamilton Sundstrand 54H60-77 propeller assembly and components. The five-year contract consists of a one-year base, followed by four single-year options. The contract value is nearly four million dollars for the Kent, Washington-based company if all options are exercised.

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The Weekender plans to take in a variety of classic planes, cars and historical attractions found on SocialFlight.com. Head to Santa Rosa, California, this weekend for the Wings Over Wine Country Airshow, presented by the Pacific Coast Air Museum. See demos for a USAF F-22 Raptor Stealth Fighter, Royal Canadian Air Force CF-18 Hornet and United States Navy F-18 Super Hornet, plus aerobatic performers, warbirds and a tour of the USAF C-17 transport.

Beech River Regional Airport Fly-In & Car Cruise takes place Saturday in Darden, Tennessee. The event will feature vintage and homebuilt aircraft, classic cars, a B-17, C-47, Lockheed Electra and other historic aircraft, plus food and music.

Sunday’s SpectaculAir fly-in at Rushford Municipal in Minnesota will offer a full day of World War II aircraft and history talks, classic car displays, aircraft rides, live music, lunch in the mess hall and shopping at the PX, plus drawings for warbird rides.

Also Sunday, the Simsbury Fly-In & Car Show, the largest in the northeast, will feature displays of more than 750 airplanes and aviation displays, automobiles, along with kids' activities, live music, food and free seminars.

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ForeFlight is warning subscribers that it will discontinue support for old iPads and iPhones on Jan. 3, 2017. The company, which offers the most widely used mobile navigation and aviation data app, said in its notice that iPhone 4 and first generation iPad 1 devices will cease to function with the app on the first business day of the new year. “We strongly encourage you to make sure your primary device is at least an iPad Air, iPad mini 2, or iPhone 5,” the letter said. The company later clarified that iPhone 4s models will continue to be supported.

ForeFlight recently launched version 8, which incorporates improved chart functions. The app is pretty hungry for storage so the list of iPad options favored by ForeFlight (Christmas is coming) defaults to the devices with at least 128 GB drives. The app itself uses at least 15.5 GB of storage and Canadian users need another 11 GB. Tablets with cellular service can use the moving map functions while Wi-Fi-only devices need external GPS receivers, some of which add other capabilities via ADS-B.

Our earlier version of the story didn't make the distinction between iPhone 4 (not supported) and iPhone 4s (which will continue to be supported).

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On a clear day in January 2010, I took-off from Montgomery Airport in San Diego, California, in my highly modified RV-6A (christened The Feral Chihuahua) for Jacksonville, Florida. Twenty-four hours later, I landed back at San Diego, having successfully crisscrossed the United States. It was an official NAA round-trip transcontinental aviation speed record. This is my story.

My quest for a record flight started with an idea: Why not rebuild my Van's RV-6A to make it go faster, higher, and farther? With such a plane, I reasoned, why not have as a goal the round-trip transcontinental speed record?

I already had a fine RV-6A with about 1,300 flight hours on it. It had flown me safely and efficiently for over twelve years, and had taken my wife and me to many places in the western United States. But I had just sold my other completed kit plane, and thus had some extra time and cash on hand. So, I decided to use these resources to go after my new goal.

To modify the RV-6A for more speed, I decided to increase the plane's horsepower, as well as improve its aerodynamics. For increased power, I replaced the Lycoming O-360 with a modified fuel-injected IO-360 built by Aero Sport Power of Kamloops, British Columbia. The engine was modified by installing a more efficient exhaust system designed by Clinton Anderson at Custom Aircraft Parts, and by adding Light Speed Engineering's dual electronic ignition in lieu of magnetos. Going with fuel injection, along with electronic ignition, increased the plane's power by 20 horsepower and allowed a more efficient fuel burn at the higher altitudes flown during the record attempt. (This better efficiency would also help extend the plane's range.)

For better aerodynamics, I used the more tucked-up feature of the IO-360's horizontal air intake to justify replacing the stock Van's engine cowling. I decided to replace it with the more elongated James cowling, with its three induction ring intakes. (Two are for cooling air, and one is for engine combustion air.) The use of these rings promised less air-intake drag, thus saving more power for thrust. The lower third ring also smoothly joined a conical ram-air intake which I reasoned should work "a la Mooney" to increase engine manifold pressure at altitude.

I also added a fiberglass plenum to cover the engine's air box for cooling, rationalizing that it would help effect laminar airflow over the engine's cooling fins, and also provide a more efficient connection to the induction ring air intakes.

The last thing I did to reduce drag was to replace the original wheel fairings with Van's newer design, which more smoothly covered the tires, wheels, and brake systems. I also took advantage of the rebuild to replace the old wood-and-fiberglass-tape nosegear fairing with Van's improved gear and hollow fiberglass fairing. The new nosegear fairing was obviously lighter, but also adopted the newer "fat" teardrop shape now prevalent on all Van's products.

Flight Test

I flew my RV-6A both before and after the modifications, recording speed, fuel burn, and engine manifold pressure at various altitudes. For each altitude, I flew a heading then reversed it, recording my groundspeed for each leg so I could compute an average no-wind airspeed. The resulting data (see Table 1) shows that the modifications in engine, ignition, and aerodynamics were well worth it. At 18,000 feet, my rebuilt RV-6A was 21 knots (24 mph) faster, while burning one gallon per hour less fuel. My first goal of flying faster had been met.

My second goal was to get the plane to fly higher. Over the years of enjoying my RV-6A, I've found that it's especially good traveling in the "teens," and I routinely filed for cruise altitudes between 12,000 and 16,000 feet. The impediments to flying higher included the loss of power (and speed) inevitably from the lower performance of the engine in the rarified upper atmosphere. But they also included the engine's oil overheating due to that rarified air's inability to carry off heat. The new IO-360, with its greater horsepower, improved ignition, and increased manifold pressure, would address the first impediment. But what about excessive oil temperatures? Indeed, the higher-horsepower engine's greater heat might make that problem worse.

During initial flight testing after the rebuild, I regularly had to stop my climb and wait for the engine's oil to cool. I also found that by about 19,000 feet, the engine's oil remained uncomfortably hot in cruise. Fortunately, I became aware of a new oil cooler developed and sold by Airflow Systems, which suggested improved performance. I eagerly ordered and installed one. After extensive flight testing, the data showed I could easily climb to 19,000 feet without the oil rising into the yellow, and cruise at a cool 180° F. With the new engine configuration and oil cooler, my second goal of flying higher was realized.

I next turned my attention to the question of extending the plane's range. At first this seemed rather obvious: add more fuel capacity. But at the altitudes (17,000 to 21,000 feet) planned for the record, I also needed to extend the range of my oxygen system. Its solution was not so obvious.

For increased fuel capacity, I did what ferry pilots do, and added a rubberized fuel bladder, plumbed to the plane's existing fuel tank selector. I initially installed a Turtle-Pac "Drum 66," which I placed lengthwise in the cockpit, replacing the passenger seat. The cockpit's lateral bar behind the seats prevented the bladder from becoming full, and limited its on-board capacity to 42 gallons. However, with the plane's two main tanks in the wings, I now had approximately 76 gallons of usable fuel, enough for almost 11 hours of flight without reserves.

I had been using Mountain High's Oxymizer cannula and 540-liter aluminum oxygen bottle for years, and found I could generally count on about six hours before running empty. For a record flight, I needed to at least double that duration. Fortunately, Mountain High recently had started offering a new product, a "black box" called an Electronic Delivery System (EDS). Intrigued, I ordered one, along with an oxygen mask and built-in microphone to keep me legal above 18,000 feet. The EDS arrived, and flight testing showed that it quadrupled my oxygen bottle's duration. I now had a fuel range of 11 hours, with an even greater range for on-board oxygen. My third goal of being able to fly farther was thus accomplished.

During the rebuild period, I added a fourth goal to my list: fly more safely. Thus, I upgraded and added equipment to also accomplish this goal. To improve my ability to obtain real-time weather information (including winds aloft and airport conditions), I installed a moving map GPS that connected to an XM radio. The GPS also had a mapping feature to improve my terrain awareness at night and under instrument meteorological conditions.

Anticipating at least one night landing during my record flight, I also decided to upgrade the plane's landing lights, and retrofitted high intensity discharge (HID) lights. I also replaced the old 121.5 MHz emergency locating transmitter (ELT) with the newer 406 MHz satellite-based ELT. Lastly, for good measure, I added a SPOT satellite tracker, so I could let people know I was either OK or not.

Satisfied with these improvements, I concluded that The Feral Chihuahua was now also safer and ready for the record attempt.

First Attempt

My strategy for setting the record was fairly straightforward:

1. Select a flight day when the jet stream was aligned west-to-east, and followed the southern border of the United States, connecting one coast to the other.

2. Leave San Diego at sunset to take advantage of cooler air for the climb to 19,000 feet.

3. Use the jet stream's push to increase my groundspeed and allow a non-stop crossing to Florida.

4. Land in Jacksonville at dawn to refuel.

5. Fly back to California during the day at low altitudes to duck the jet stream's headwind.

That was the plan, anyway—but it didn't work.

On a clear February evening in 2009, I took off from San Diego. Unfortunately, I hadn't accounted for being tired at the start and was dangerously fatigued only six hours into the flight. I also found a number of systems to be inadequate, including my clothing's and cabin heater's ability to warm me at 19,000 feet in February; the instruments' lighting effectiveness; and the bladder fuel tank's usability. To make things worse, the forecast tail winds didn't materialize, making a non-stop crossing impossible with the amount of fuel I had onboard.

So, at around the Texas-Louisiana border, I made the difficult decision to quit and turn-back. From 19,000 feet, it took about 40 minutes to descend, so I asked the controller for the nearest 24-hour towered airport an hour behind me. He advised Abilene, Texas, so I took it, turned, and descended.

After refueling and taking a short nap until sunrise at Abilene, I limped my way home to San Diego, using the easier daylight flying conditions to reflect on my failed attempt and learn from it. After all, Henry Ford once said, "Failure is only the opportunity to more intelligently begin again." And I was certainly in need of more intelligence.

As I flew west to home, I jotted down the things that hadn't worked on the failed flight. And beside each item, I listed what I could do differently next time. My list included the following changes:

1. Take off at dawn. I'm a morning person, and leaving at sunset was simply stupid on my part. It was totally against my biological clock. Plus, leaving at dawn would give me a night's sleep before the flight, so I'd disembark fresh instead of tired.

2. Fly high east across the United States in daylight. Since I would be leaving at dawn, a large part of my high-altitude flight would now be in daylight, giving me at least some passive solar heating in the cabin to ward-off the 4° F outside environment.

3. Replace the flexible fuel bladder with rigid-walled fuel tanks. I had found that the flexible bladder was difficult to fuel and—due to its irregular shape on the floor—didn't have a consistent "unusable" amount of fuel, thereby making a wild guess of fuel duration calculations. A more traditional rigid fuel tank would also allow me to calibrate and better plumb it to the aircraft's fuel system.

4. Improve cabin lighting by installing an LED strip under the glareshield. This was probably more psychologically needed than real, but it would make it easier for me to monitor engine systems, and would make me feel "at home" as I travelled surreally surrounded in blackness nearly four miles above the earth.

5. Land halfway across the United States, both while heading east and west. I didn't want to again gamble on having a perfect tailwind to make it non-stop to Jacksonville. So, I would purposely plan to stop halfway while heading east. The next time it would happen in daylight, so I could also study the approach, taxiways, and FBO location, and confirm they'd be open for refueling when I would be coming back 12 hours later. Ironically, halfway across the USA is Abilene, where I'd stopped during the failed attempt, so it was already familiar to me. Stopping halfway also would allow me to depart with less fuel and weight, and thus climb more quickly to cruise altitude.

With the changes listed above, I awaited the next perfect winter day and took off at dawn, January 30, 2010.

The result was success, and I beat the old record by three days. As is the case in many revised plans, I found that my successful record flight was actually an easier experience than my previous year's failed attempt. Henry Ford was right!

Lessons learned

I learned a few important lessons during the whole record-setting experience. They included:

1. Mistakes are an opportunity to improve, so always have a timely debrief to learn from them.

2. Spend some time in your cockpit before you depart, and visualize your full flight to help identify weaknesses.

3. Use checklists to aid your memory. (I had one for remembering essential equipment and supplies, as well as a special pre-flight checklist modified for the record flight.)

4. You'll need the support of many people, so be good to them. My friends and family were always supportive, and I can't say enough good about them, my equipment suppliers, and the FAA.

5. Trust your inner voice. I'm glad I paid attention to those nagging doubts that always enter one's mind. In all cases they were right, and I was safer as a result.

Jeremiah ("Jerry") Jackson is an instrument-rated private pilot and experienced skydiver with over 1,800 parachute jumps. He's been on eight successful world-record skydives, and holds the official NAA round-trip transcontinental speed record in his modified RV-6A. Jerry has published two aviation books: The Flight of the Feral Chihuahua, about the pursuit of his NAA speed record, and Four Minutes, about the crash of his RV-10. He and his wife live in San Diego, California.

This article originally appeared in the September 2014 issue of Kitplanes magazine.

Read More from Kitplanes, and learn how to receive your FREE copy of The Annual Homebuilt Buyers Guide!

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The Miracle on the Hudson is back in the news, with the big-budget flick Sully in theaters. For pilots, it’s a stark reminder that basic stick-and-rudder skills still come in handy sometimes. Those skills certainly helped Sullenberger, whose four decades of experience included glider flying. But in my work as an FAA aviation safety inspector — and during my own four decades of flying, as a flight instructor, airline pilot and the owner of a taildragger — I’ve seen innumerable examples of pilots, at all levels of experience, who seem to have forgotten or never learned those basic skills.

All too often, I see commercial pilots who have forgotten what the rudder is for. You do remember adverse yaw, don’t you? I’ve seen CFIs who allow their students to land nosewheel first, instead of properly flaring the aircraft, without blinking an eye. And I’ve seen all too many flight-test applicants who blindly follow the magenta line while navigating with their glass-panel GPS. If the screens went blank, would they have a clue about their position?

Besides my own observations, I hear similar complaints from seasoned air crews at the major air carriers about the new hires. The new hires know how to fly the systems, but basic airmanship is poor. By the time you’re at a major airline, it’s too late to learn those basic skills. Technology has improved tremendously over the years, and that’s great, but we still need to have a firm grasp on the basics to use them effectively.

So now we have some instructors without a firm grasp of the basic skills, who in turn train students who become pilots without a firm grasp of the basic skills. These pilots go on to become instructors without basic skills, who train students without good basic skills ... you see where this is going.

So let’s see if we can fix this. To do my part, some colleagues and I have started the New England Aviation Education Foundation (NEAEF), a nonprofit group devoted to reintroducing the importance of basic flight skills and stick-and-rudder expertise for today’s pilots, CFIs and student pilots. For our first event, we’ve organized a daylong skills camp for CFIs, coming up on Saturday, Sept. 24, with a morning classroom session and then a two-hour session in a taildragger with an experienced instructor (click here for all the details). We’ll focus on the basic flying skills — takeoffs, landings, and loss of control in those situations.

Will this fix the problem? No, but it’s a start in the right direction. As Sullenberger put it in an interview, “For 42 years, I've been making small, regular deposits in this bank of experience, education, and training. And on January 15th, the balance was sufficient so that I could make a very large withdrawal.” What’s in your bank account? Is your balance sufficient to meet any challenge? If you’re not sure, then find a CFI who can help you to get there.

Diamond Aircraft has been working on sophisticated fly-by-wire systems for light aircraft for several years and much of that work goes on at the University of Stuttgart. AVweb recently visited and shot this video on the research being done.

While you vacationed on remote mountain airstrips, aero-administrators were hard at work making more work for instructors and examiners. But despite enhanced e-paperwork shuffles, pilots can preserve basic aerodynamic sense by acing this quiz.

Click here to take the quiz.

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