Eye of Experience #14:
Flying the Light Twin Safely

Thinking of moving up from one fan to two? Sometimes, the mystery - and old wives tales - surrounding multiengine flying can be enough to scare off a pilot from the transition. In this month's Eye Of Experience, AVweb's Howard Fried dispels many of the myths about light twins and answers reader questions about them. Even if you're not thinking of


Eye Of ExperienceReader Jerry Kurata requested a column on multiengine flying, and since I just afew minutes ago got home from giving a refresher workout to a very good multiengine pilot,I thought it would be a good time to comply with his request. By the bye, the guy I wasflying with is a much better pilot than I am. (Im just a tired old man who blundersaround the airspace.)

A Beech Model 58 Baron
A Beech Model 58 Baron.

Paul, many years ago, was a chief flight Instructor at an active flightschool. Now, hes a very successful businessman who uses a Beech Model 55 Baron withfull deice equipment for business travel. He flys about 150 hours per year, and at leastthree times a year he has me give him a refresher workout. Today, we did a bunch ofengine-out stuff – I killed one on the takeoff roll, on climb-out, on short final, and wedid several landings with one caged, including a go-around with one set at zero thrust.

Reader Kurata posed several very valid questions that I will now attempt to answer.

Why Get A Multiengine Rating Since The Safety Of Multiengine Flying May Be AnIllusion?

The answer to this one is quite simple: It is only an illusion if done improperly. Iknow, the statistics show that there are more fatalities in twins than in singlesproportionate to the number of hours flown, but I think the answer to that is also verysimple. During the first couple of hours of multiengine training, the student getsacquainted with the airplane, and he/she learns where all the knobs and dials are located.From that time on, the trainee never sees a time when everything is all working at once.It is just one emergency after another until the student becomes smooth and proficient atrunning the emergency procedures. Then he takes the checkride and gets the rating.

For the next six or eight years, he flies from point A to point B and all is well. Thenone day it isnt, and the pilot isnt ready for it. The consequence is adisaster that we read about in the paper the next day. The solution to this problem isalso quite simple. Do what Paul does and get recurrent training regularly. Air carrierpilots do it, and we in general aviation should too. In fact, we no doubt need it morethan the air carrier or charter pilots who are required to receive continuing training andregular checkrides.

A Piper Apache
A Piper Apache like this one can be a better ME trainer than newer light twins.

I believe there is another, psychological danger to flying a light twin. When a pilottaxis out for takeoff in a single and does his/her run-up, if the pilot should get a sixhundred RPM mag drop he or she would turn around, taxi back and turn the airplane over toa mechanic with instructions to “Fix it!” The same individual who has the samething happen in a twin is tempted to say to him/herself, “What the heck! Ivegot three more mags,” and go right ahead and take off.

Another thing to watch for is overconfidence with respect to weather. The light twinpilot may be tempted to tackle weather that neither he nor the equipment is capable ofhandling.

Just How Much Time Does It Take To Be Safe?

Theres no right answer to this one. It is all up to the personality of the pilotand his attitude toward flying, any flying – single- or multiengine. Ive knownpilots with thousands of hours with whom I wouldnt fly and others of very limitedexperience with whom I am quite comfortable. The careful pilot who knows and respects hislimitations and the machinery he operates is a safe pilot in a very short time. On theother hand, the overconfident or timid pilot (being timid is just as bad as beingoverconfident) may never acquire enough experience to be safe. (See my next column onhuman factors in a few weeks.) So you see, there is no simple answer to that question. Itall depends on the attitude of the pilot and the quality of the training received.

What Make And Model Of Airplane Is Best To Use For Multiengine Training?

Reader Kurata then goes on to say, “I started my training in a Seminole, but havemoved up to a Cessna 310, since this is closer to what I want to fly on trips.” Thisone I can answer. The Seminole, Duchess, and Seneca are terrible trainers. They are eachgood airplanes for their own purposes, but as trainers they suck. None of the three have acritical engine (or they have two critical engines, depending on how you look atit) so it is impossible for the instructor to demonstrate the difference in Vmc with onecaged as opposed to the other (and in a 310 or Baron it is as much as six knots).

Mike Busch's C-T310
Mike Busch’s T310, on the ramp at Monterey, Calif.

Personally, I think the tired old Apache is still the best multiengine traineravailable. Its performance is so minimal that when the trainee gets out of it and stepsinto a 310 or a Baron, he has performance to spare. If they are trained to squeezeanything at all out of an Apache, they will find the 310, Baron or Seneca series a snap tohandle in an emergency situation.

This, of course, is just my own opinion. We used (at my school) a Seneca I for trainingfor 17 years (after having had both an Apache and an Aztec as well as a Beechcraft model95 Travel Air prior to that). Throughout this entire time I was unhappy. Finally, a fewmonths ago I bought an Apache for training and we rent a Seneca II for travel. This worksout quite well. The Seneca II with turbocharged engines is definitely not suitable fortraining (cutting turbocharged engines is not recommended), but is a great go-placesairplane. With that airframe and its large rear door, you dont have to ask yourpassengers to clamber over a bunch of seats – they merely step in, almost like acabin-class airplane, and it yields respectable cruise performance with an economical fuelburn.

Any Models People Should Avoid, Etc.?

A Cessna 337
Cessna’s 337 Skymaster presents its own set of challenges.

Again an easy one to answer. The answer to this one is a resounding NO! They areall good for the purpose the pilot requires at the time. I am often asked, “Do youprefer a high-wing or a low-wing airplane, a single or multi?” My answer is thatIve flown them with the wing on top, on the bottom, in the middle, and on both thetop and bottom, and as to preference, I only ask “What is it that I want to dotoday?” I then prefer the airplane that will accomplish my specific mission the best.As for ones to avoid, dont avoid any of ’em. I love ’em all. Every single productionairplane is good for the purpose for which it was built and will serve the pilot well ifit is treated properly.

There really are only two important points to consider in multiengine flying: one, thepilot must thoroughly know and understand the systems in the airplane; and two, he mustknow and apply the emergency procedures every single time, because if he doesn’t,the penalty is very severe. One day, he will die in a multiengine airplane! And theseprocedures are not particularly difficult. But they must be accomplished smoothly andrapidly, without undue haste. Remember that panic is the killer. Nothing is happening sofast that you need to panic.

So How About Operating All That Equipment In A Twin, Ice Gear, Radar, Maybe SpeedBrakes, Etc.?

As is the case with any learning experience, taken one step (or one item) at a time, itis not particularly difficult to become familiar with the using all the equipment theairplane has to offer. If the airplane is radar-equipped, then the pilot should attend agood weather radar clinic and learn how to properly interpret the information displayed onthe radarscope. With a Stormscope or StrikeFinder, reading the manual is sufficient. Withdeice boots, the pilot must learn to restrain himself from exercising them too soon, ortheir effect will be wasted. If we’re dealing with a pressurized airplane, that systemmust be learned. Each piece of equipment must be learned and understood, but taken onepiece at a time and in small bites, it is not difficult.

What Is The Difference In Flying A “Light Twin” (Which Really DoesntSeem That “Light” To Me) And A Larger Twin, Such As A Cessna 340?

This question is closely related to the last one and is Mr. Kuratas finalquestion. In terms of flying them, there is no real difference. They all respond to theimmutable laws of nature, and they all operate by lift, weight, thrust, and drag. Mr.Kurata goes on to ask, “I know the insurance companies make a big deal about it. Myinsurer was willing to insure me on a CE-310 for a bit of change ($4,000/year), but wouldnot even consider insuring a pilot in a CE-340 until he had 1,500 hrs and 500 multi. Arethe planes that different? A T310 can fly as high as a 340 and as fast or faster. I guessthere is the pressurization system, but that does not seem too difficult. Other than that,whats different?”

A Cessna 414
Cessna’s 414 is considered a “medium” twin.

First, we must understand that although the FAA sets the legal standard, the insurancecompanies are the ones who really determine pilot qualifications, and they are becomingmore and more stringent. Not too many years ago and although I had never been in one, Iwas added to the policies of both a BE60 (Beech Duke) and a Piper 601P (PressurizedAerostar) at no increase in premium. I doubt very much if that would be the case today.

As I mentioned earlier, the big difference is when you step into a cabin-classairplane, particularly one with a complete environmental system. It becomes a lot morecomplex, what with training for emergency descents, oxygen back-up, etc., not to mentiondoor seals, etc.

Sim Training And Recurrency

When I proposed to write this column in response to Mr. Kuratas post, my bosshere at AVweb, Mike Busch, with whom I very rarely disagree and for whom I havegreat respect, okayed the project, but added that any column on multiengine flying should”include a statement that any pilot who flies a twin without at least annualsimulator training at Flight Safety, SimuFlite etc. has a death wish.” With thisstatement I must respectfully disagree in part. I had that kind of training for the CessnaCitation Initial Course (at Flight Safety International) and it was wonderful. But Idont think it is necessarily appropriate for the operator of a light piston-poweredtwin. For a jet, turboprop, or pressurized cabin class twin I agree with Mike, but for thelight twin I believe a good workout, again at least annually, in the airplane with aknowledgeable flight instructor would serve the pilot better. (For another perspective,check out Mike’s article, DoYou Really Want A Twin? ) In any case, the key is to getregular refresher training. This, again, is closely related to Mr. Kuratas lastquestion.

Usual Boilerplate: If you have a comment regarding this column, please post it here rather than sending it to me by direct email. That way others may benefit from your input.