FSGA 99-02: General Aviation 14 CFR Parts 91 and 125 Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)

The text of the FAA document.


BULLETIN TYPE:Flight Standards Information Bulletin (FSIB) for General Aviation (FSGA)
BULLETIN TITLE:General Aviation 14 CFR Parts 91 and 125 Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)

1. PURPOSE. This bulletin provides operational policies, procedures, andtraining requirements for Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) conducted bypilots operating under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 91and 125. Appendix A contains LAHSO definitions, general operationalrequirements, and procedures. Appendix B contains specific requirements foroperations conducted under 14 CFR part 91. Appendix C contains specificrequirements for operations conducted under 14 CFR part 125 and operatorsauthorized to conduct operations under a Letter of Deviation Authority. AppendixD contains sample Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) paragraph A027. Thisinformation is critical to the safety of LAHSO and will be issued in conjunctionwith FAA Notice 7110.199 and revised Aeronautical Information Manual informationpublished in FAA Notice 7110.199.

2. BACKGROUND. On April 11, 1997, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)expanded and replaced Simultaneous Operations on Intersecting Runways (SOIR)with Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO). SOIR, used since 1968, exclusivelydescribed simultaneous operations on two intersecting runways, either twoaircraft landing simultaneously, or one aircraft landing while another is takingoff. LAHSO includes landing operations to hold short of an intersecting runway,taxiway, predetermined point, or an approach/departure flight path. LAHSO, justas was SOIR, is an air traffic control tool used to increase airport capacity,maintain system efficiency, and enhance safety. LAHSO procedures are currentlybeing used at almost 850 intersecting runway combinations at more than 220airports in the United States. On February 8, 1999, the FAA, in coordinationwith industry, outlined changes in policy and procedures for conducting LAHSO.LAHSO procedures require both pilot and controller participation to balance theneed for system efficiency and safety.

NOTE: The information in this bulletin does NOT change the existing requirements in place for principal operations or other inspectors but adds information needed by general aviation (14 CFR part 91) operators.



    A. Aviation Safety Program. The national Aviation SafetyProgram through its network of Safety Program Managers (Operations) and 4,000plus Aviation Safety Counselors are responsible for the dissemination of LAHSOguidance and the conduct of knowledge-based, aviation safety seminars aboutLAHSO.

    B. Designated Pilot Examiners (DPE) and CertificatedFlight Instructors (CFI). DPE and CFI are responsible to ensure that candidates,during the conduct of practical tests for new certificates and/or ratings andduring flight reviews, have a basic knowledge and understanding of LAHSO.


    A. Title 14 CFR part 91 operators shall, using one or moreof the Knowledge Based Training Methodologies outlined below, become completelyfamiliar with and have a good basic understanding of LAHSO procedures prior toaccepting a LAHSO clearance. The LAHSO knowledge-based training may beaccomplished using one or any combination of the methods listed below:

(1) Review pertinent sections of the AIM to include the basic LAHSO definitions as redefined in the attached revision to AIM, the A/FD, FDC NOTAM’s, and other charting publications;

(2) Attendance at FAA and/or industry safety education seminars that include LAHSO as an emphasis topic;

(3) Successful completion of the flight review (as required by 14 CFR section 61.56) which contains procedural guidance on LAHSO operations: and

(4) Successful completion of a flight instructor refresher clinic that includes guidance on LAHSO operations.

    B. The knowledge-based training will include as a minimumthe following elements:

(1) LAHSO guidance contained in AIM and this bulletin;

(2) Land and hold short concept with emphasis on reduced runway availability, stabilized approach criteria, and touchdown point accuracy;

(a) A discussion of the definition of available landing distance as defined by the applicable regulation,

(b) Approved LAHSO airports and runway configurations,

(c) Use of visual aids during LAHSO (i.e., vertical guidance, runway lighting, signs, and markings),

(d) Computing required landing distance,

(e) Rejected Landing Procedures, and

(f) Minimum equipment list requirements and the interaction with the stopping capability of the aircraft.

3. COMPUTATIONS FOR REQUIRED LANDING DISTANCES. Required landing distance (asper 14 CFR section 91.103(b)) will be the distance as determined from theFAA-approved AFM or POH over a 50-foot obstacle plus 1,000 feet. The computationis based upon the aircraft configuration, environment, and the weight actuallyused for landing.

NOTE: If the AFM/POH does not publish landing data over a 50-foot obstacle, then the computation will be based upon the AFM/POH landing data for existing conditions plus 1,000 feet.

4. SAMPLE REQUIRED LANDING DISTANCE CALCULATION. The following example of arequired landing distance computation for LAHSO is predicated on a standardreciprocating engine, light twin aircraft operating under 14 CFR part 91. Forthe illustration, one assumes the following hypothetical aircraft and airportconditions:

    A. Aircraft landing weight 5,039 pounds., OAT deg. 25 C(77 deg. F), wind component of 9.5 knots, and no runway slope.

  • total landing distance over a 50-foot obstacle 2,500 feet,
  • add 1,000 feet,
  • equals the required landing distance of 3,500 feet

    B. In the above example, the pilot would be unable toaccept a LAHSO clearance for any runway that has an ALD less than 3,500 feet.